Educational Development In India During Pre-Independence Period
The earliest definite figures in respect of literacy in India are available in the report of William Adam. According to him, the literacy rate in India in 1836- 37 was about 6 percent.10 The english rulers had little concern for the education of adults. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) in its fourth meeting in December 1938, appointed an Adult Education Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Syed Mahmud. The committee stressed the importance of adult literacy, need for training of literacy teachers, motivation of adults, use of audio-visual media in teaching and efforts for retention of literacy and continuing education. Gandhiji considered illiteracy as a sin and shame and demanded solving the same at the earliest through concerted efforts. He suggested in his constructive programme two forms of education viz. Basic Education and Adult Education. The second half of the 19th century laid strong foundations in the enlightenment and empowerment role of education leading to the massive educational activities in Travancore. Travancore government entered significantly into the field of education during the administration of Dewan T. Madhava Rao. Government intervention in the field of female education begins only from 1860s. It was a neglected area except for a few boarding schools run by the Missionaries during 1819-22. Missionary efforts made an impact on the attitude of the society towards female education.